Agronomy


 DOI 10.36461/VRF.2022.13.2.002

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RESISTANCE OF BREEDING SAMPLES OF WINTER WHEAT TO CEREAL LEAF BEETLE (OULEMA MELANOPUS L.) IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE CENTRAL CAUCASUS FOOTHILL ZONE
I.R. Manukyan, Candidate of Biological Sciences, Associate Professor;
T.S. Abieva, Candidate of Biological Sciences;
N.T. Khokhoeva, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences; N.N. Doguzova, PhD student
North Caucasus Research Institute of Mountain and Foothill Agriculture –
branch of the Federal State Scientific Center Vladikavkaz Scientific Center of the Russian Academy
of Sciences, SKNIIGPSH VNC RAS, Russia, RSO Alania, e-mail: Адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. Для просмотра адреса в вашем браузере должен быть включен Javascript.

The article presents the results of studies of the resistance of the breeding material of winter soft wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to the phytophagous beetle, cereal leaf beetle (Oulema melanopus Z.). The research was conducted in 2019-2021 at the FSBI SCNIIGPSH VNC RAS. The objects of research were 128 varieties of winter soft wheat from the VIR collection, of various ecological and geographical origin. The purpose of the research is to study the gene pool of winter soft wheat and create a new source material for breeding for resistance to cereal leaf beetle. There are 31.3% of varieties that are resistant. They are Torrild, Mereke 70, Zhadyra, Kobra, Soraja, Fenezia, Dorota, Olivin, Zaritsa, Muza, Areal, Teslo, Kredo, Bizel, Frontana, Renan, Zysk, Biggar, AK biday, Alacris, Cina 7, Solara, Chornobrova, Batko, Zvytyaga, Astella, Lilit, Verita, Batum, Khmel'nychanka, Vatazbok, Markola, Zolotoy bezosty, Omskaya 5, Pionerskaya 32, Nebokrai, Lasuma, Blago, Kamyshlanka 4, Jadvisia. The correlation coefficient between the degree of leaf damage and an ear length is -0.56 (negative, average), between the degree of leaf damage and the number of grains in an ear is -0.68 (negative, strong), between the degree of leaf damage and the weight of the grain from an ear and the plant productivity index (PPI) is negative and very high -0.93 and -0.86, respectively. All productivity elements had significant correlation coefficients, but the highest are r = -0.93 (with the weight of grain from an ear) and r = -0.86 (plant productivity index). The source material for use in breeding programs for resistance to cereal leaf beetle has been isolated.
Keywords: breeding, stability of winter soft wheat, cereal leaf beetle.

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 DOI 10.36461/VRF.2022.13.2.010

YIELD AND BIOCHEMICAL STATUS OF CORN DEPENDING ON THE MINERAL NUTRITION AND THE PLANT POPULATION DENSITY
S.A. Semina, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor;
I.V. Gavryushina, Candidate of Biological Sciences, Associate Professor;
A.S. Paliychuk, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University",
Russia, Penza, tel. (8412)628-151, e-mail: Адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. Для просмотра адреса в вашем браузере должен быть включен Javascript.

The article presents the results of studies on the effect of various dosages and methods of applying mineral fertilizers on the formation of yield and biochemical composition of corn phytomass depending on the density of standing plants. The studies were carried out on leached heavy loam chernozem. Pre-sowing application of mineral fertilizers in the norm N120 P90 contributed to an increase in the yield of green mass by 26%, and dry matter by 20.6%. The transfer of nitrogen part (N 30) to soil dressing increased the collection of raw biomass by 49.8%, and dry biomass by 27.1% relative to the level of natural soil fertility. An additional raw biomass and dry biomass (39.2 % and 39.3%, relatively) were obtained when N120 P90К60 was applied. On a non-fertilized agricultural background, when nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizers are applied and nitrogen fertilization is carried out, the increase in phytomass yield is noted to a density of 100 ths. units/ha. The maximum yield was obtained at a density of 90 ths units/ha on the background of N120P90К60. A single application of mineral fertilizers supported the improvement in the protein content of the feed and increased the crude protein content in the biomass by 1.04-1.36%. When nitrogen fertilizers were applied in portions, the increase was 2.64 % to the natural fertility level and 1.39 % compared to a single application of nitrogen-phosphorus nutrition. On the non-fertilized agricultural background with increasing density of plants, a decrease in protein provision of the biomass was noted. On the variants with the application of nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizers, the increase was noted up to the density of 80 ths. pcs/ha. And on the background of N120P90К60 it was up to 70 ths. pcs/ha. The same pattern was seen in the content of raw fat.
Keywords: corn, density, fertilizers, green mass, yield, protein.

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DOI 10.36461/VRF.2022.13.2.008

EVALUATION OF WINTER WHEAT VARIETIES TO RESISTANCE TO BROWN RUST IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE FOOTHILL ZONE OF THE CENTRAL CAUCASUS
I.R. Manukyan, Candidate of Biological Sciences, Associate professor; N.N. Doguzova, Postgraduate
North-Caucasian research institute of Hill and Foot-hill Agriculture - branch of Federal State Budgetary Research Institution of Federal Research Centre "Vladikavkaz Scientific Centre of RAS", Russia,
The Republic of North Ossetia–Alania, Vladikavkaz, 8(928)4876155, e-mail: Адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. Для просмотра адреса в вашем браузере должен быть включен Javascript.

The article presents the results of immunological studies of varieties of winter wheat. We considered the issues of resistance to brown rust, intrapopulation diversity of Puccinia tritici f. sp. tritici Eriks, and methods of evaluation and selection of initial selection material with a wide genetic basis of resistance to the pathogen. The research was carried out at the field of the FSBRI of North-Caucasian research institute of Hill and Foot-hill Agriculture of Russian national research centre RAS (RSO-Alania), located in the foothill zone of the Central Caucasus in 2019-2021. Twenty-five samples of soft winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L) from the collection of Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry and forty-seven isogenic lines (Thatcher) with Lr. genes were used as objects of research. Evaluation for non-specific resistance was carried out according to five criteria: the type of reaction (in points) and the degree of damage (in percentage points), the increase rate of the area under the curve (AUDPC), the stability and plant productivity indexes (SI and PPI, respectively). Studies of the racial composition of the pathogen populations were carried out using a universal set of wheat lines and varieties of differentiators with known resistance genes. We revealed that the effective genes of resistance to the local brown rust population included Lr9, Lr19, Lr24, Lr25, Lr30, Lr32, Lr34, Lr36, Lr39, Lr41, Lr42, Lr45, Lr47, Lr51, Lr53, Lr67. When analysing the phenotypic composition, six phenotypic groups were identified: MHTT, PGTT, RHTT, NHKP, ТQТР, QHKP. Phenotypes of the T-group, which are virulent to Lr9, Lr16, with an occurrence frequency of 40.0%, are characteristic of all grain-sowing regions of Russia and the world. They are dominant in the studied population of P. triticina. Phenotypes RHTT, QHKP, MHTT, which are avirulent to the Lr9, Lr24 genes, occur in the population with a frequency of 13.3, 3.3, 10.0%, respectively. The occurrence frequency of the phenotypic group PGTT and NHKP with an avirulence to the genes, Lr9, Lr24, Lr26, Lr2a, Lr3, is 33.3%. Genetic diversity according to Shannon's diversity index within the population is high, H = 2.51. According to the screening results, we identified winter wheat varieties, which are resistant to brown rust. They are ranked as follows: resistant – 11 samples, medium–resistant – 9, susceptible – 5. The following varieties of soft winter wheat of foreign selection – Dorota (France), Genoveva (Slovakia), Areal (Ukraine), Eltan (the USA), Verita (Slovakia), Muza (Poland), Alauda (Germany), Fenezja (Poland), Vatazbok (Ukraine), and Russian varieties Prima and Omskaya 5 – are proposed to use in breeding work as sources of non-specific resistance to Puccinia triticina. The selected sources of resistance are recommended for inclusion in wheat breeding programs for resistance to brown rust.
Keywords: winter wheat, brown rust, sources of resistance, population, breeding.

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DOI 10.36461/VRF.2022.13.2.007

HEMP SEED YIELD AND OIL CONTENT IN THE FOREST-STEPPE OF THE MIDDLE VOLGA REGION
V.A. Gushchina, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor; A.D. Smirnov, Postgraduate
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University", Russia, Penza, tel. 8(8412)62-83-67, e-mail: Адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. Для просмотра адреса в вашем браузере должен быть включен Javascript.

In order to take a prominent position in the world market for hemp cultivation with seed yields exceeding those of the Soviet Union, energy-saving technologies need to be studied and introduced. The basis for low-cost cultivation methods is the use of water-soluble fertilizers containing micronutrients in chelated form. Hemp farming in the Penza region is a long tradition, which determines the priority for its revival. In this regard, the purpose of the research is to substantiate the effectiveness of topdressing by micro-element fertilizers in the cultivation technology of hemp variety Surskaya for obtaining seeds. The effect of foliar treatments on yield and oil content of seeds was studied in 2019...2021 under the conditions of OOO "Konopleks Penza" on leached chernozem soil. In the first and third years of the study, the hydrothermal coefficient (HTC) corresponded to conditions of insufficient humidity and was 0.74 and 0.90, while in the second year it was dry (HTC - 0.68). Seed productivity of hemp averaged 1.0 t/ha in 2021 and was the highest in all years of research. The lowest seed yield (0.78 t/ha) was obtained in 2019 because the plants grew slowly during the initial stages of ontogenesis due to lack of moisture. It increased to 0.88 t/ha in 2020. Micro-element fertilizers used for foliar fertilization increased seed yield by an average of 0.08 t/ha. A maximum gain of 0.10 t/ha was obtained from foliar treatment with a liquid complex fertilizer Agree`s "Magniy (Magnesium)" (3 l/ha). It is important to note that the interaction of two foliar fertilizers, carried out at the phases of the three pairs of true leaves and budding, resulted in a seed yield of 0.94 t/ha with an oil content of 33.20 %, providing an oil yield of 0.303 t/ha.
Keywords: hemp, seed yield, oil content, oil yield, micro-elements, chelate form.

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DOI 10.36461/VRF.2022.13.2.011

THE USE OF MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL METHODS TO STUDY CHICKPEA VARIETIES AS SOURCE MATERIAL FOR BREEDING IN THE LOWER VOLGA REGION
V.I. Zhuzhukin, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor; Zh.N. Mukhatova, Postgraduate;
A.G. Subbotin, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Docent;
A.F. Sugrobov, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Senior Lecturer;
A.F. Druzhkin, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Saratov State Vavilov Agrarian University", Russia, Saratov, e-mail: Адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. Для просмотра адреса в вашем браузере должен быть включен Javascript.

This article evaluates the economically valuable traits of chickpea varieties from the VIR collection: k-16 Kubansky 16; k-23 TURE 4; k-109 Nut bukharsky; k-163 Kubansky163; k-388; k-400 Sredneaziatsky 400; k-416; k-418; k-434; k-440; k-466; k-468; k-475; k-495; k-499; k-514; k-531 GARBANZAS; k-532; k-534; k-542; k-572; k-574; k-596; k-651; k-1201 Krasnogradsky 04. Different degrees of variation in vegetative and generative parameters were found. The greatest variability (V > 20.0%) was established by the stem thickness, the number of primary branches, the number of beans per plant, the thousand grain weight, the productivity of one plant, the number of seeds per plant, yield. We identified the chickpea varieties which differ by a great thousand grain weight (k-434, k-542), a significant stem length (k-163 Kubansky 163, k-400 Sredneaziatsky 400), and a larger number of seeds from one plant (k-574, k-596). The chickpea varieties were clustered by minimum Euclidean distances in the eighteenth iteration step (the Euclidean distance was 16.88). The clusters were grouped into seven ones that differ significantly at the 5 % level in the studied traits. A correlation coefficient matrix was calculated. It allowed the interpretation of 66 relationships, of which 17 were found to be significant at the 5% level. The use of factor analysis helped to identify the significant weights of the variables on the components.
Keywords: chickpea, variety, traits, dendrogram, cluster, correlation, matrix, factor.

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DOI 10.36461/VRF.2022.13.2.014

EVALUATION OF BIOMASS YIELDS OF GREEN BRISTLE GRASS (SETARIA ITALICA SUBSP. ITALICA) DEPENDING ON AGRICULTURE TECHNIQUES
T.V. Rodina1, Senior Research Fellow; V.I. Zhuzhukin2, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor;
А.N. Astashov1, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
1Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution "Russian Scientific and Research, and Design Technological Institute of Sorghum and Maize", Russia, Saratov, tel. 8(8452) 79-49-69, e-mail: Адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. Для просмотра адреса в вашем браузере должен быть включен Javascript.
2Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Saratov State Agrarian University named after N.I. Vavilov”, Russia, Saratov

Green bristle grass is a promising fodder crop for the arid conditions of the Lower Volga region. The results of the study of the effect of seeding rate and width of row spacing on the above-ground biomass yield of the green bristle grass variety Stachumi 3 are presented in the article. The research was conducted on the experimental field of the FSBSI "Russian Research Institute of Sorghum and Maize," which is located in the suburban microzone of Saratov district and is territorially located in the southern part of the black soil zone of the Lower Volga region. The climate of the region is sharply continental, arid. The soil of the experimental field is southern chernozem. The results obtained were confirmed by the analysis of dispersion of a two-factor experiment on the study of six gradations of factor A (seeding rate from 1.25 to 7.50 mln pieces/ha) and three gradations of factor B (row-spacing 70, 30, and 15 cm), according to which significant differences in the effect of seeding rate on the above-ground biomass yield of green bristle grass were found. On average over the four years of the study, the highest crop yield was obtained in the milky ripeness phase when sowing with a row-spacing of 15 cm and with a planting rate of 5.00 mln/ha - 31.77 t/ha, and when the row-spacing was increased from 30 to 70 cm, the biomass yield was 29.53 and 21.53 t/ha, respectively.
Keywords: green bristle grass, biomass yield, biochemical composition, protein, two-factor analysis of variance, seeding rate, row spacing.

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DOI 10.36461/ VRF.2022.13.2.013

INFLUENCE OF THE HUMIN FERTILIZER "GUMOSTIM” ON TOMATO PRODUCTIVITY
V.I. Gryazeva, Candidate of Agricultural sciences, assistant-professor;
Y.V. Koryagin, Candidate of Agricultural sciences, assistant-professor;
N.V. Koryagina, Candidate of Agricultural sciences, assistant-professor
Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University",
Russia, Penza, tel. 8(412)-628373, email: Адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. Для просмотра адреса в вашем браузере должен быть включен Javascript.

One of the most promising areas of improving the productivity of tomato and the quality of its yield is the regulation of growth using biologically active substances. Under the conditions of OAO "Penzensky Teplichny Combinat" the effect of biologically active fertilizer of humic nature "Gumostim" on the growth, development and yield of tomato was studied. It was found that the application of "Gumostim" on the tomato seedling crop significantly affected the rate of phenological phases and contributed to a more powerful development of the above-ground part of the tomato plants. The highest percentage of fruit setting was observed in tomato plants where Gumostim was applied to both seeds and plants during the flowering and fruiting phase, and the percentage of fruit setting on the second brush was higher than on the first brush. The earliest yield was obtained when the treatment of both seeds and plants with the fertilizer Gumostim in the phase of fruiting, and was 7.1 t/ha, which was 1.7 t/ha higher than the control. The share of early harvest in the total yield was 19.7 to 20.1 %, compared to 19.1 % in the control. Yields for the variants of the experiment with the fertilizer Gumostim varied from 30.9 to 35.3 t/ha, with 28.3 t/ha. The increase in yields compared to the control was from 2.6 to 7.0 t/ha. The highest productivity per plant and per square metre was in the variant of joint treatment of seeds and plants during the fruiting phase, 4.41 g and 20.99 g respectively, which was 1.0 g more and 4.75 g more than in the control. In the same variant there were the highest indicators on the chemical composition of tomato fruits. The dry matter content was 7.6 %, sugar - 2.6 %, ascorbic acid - 26.8 %.
Keywords: humic fertiliser Gumostim, tomato, interphase periods, tomato vegetative mass, yield, biochemical composition of fruit.

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DOI 10.36461/ VRF.2022.13.2.021

GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS OF SUGAR BEET PLANTS WHEN APPLYING DIFFERENT POLYFUNCTIONAL PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
S.A. Semina, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor;
E.V. Zheryakov, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor;
Yu.I. Zheryakova, Postgraduate
Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University",
Russia, Penza, tel. (8412)628-151, e-mail: Адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. Для просмотра адреса в вашем браузере должен быть включен Javascript.

The article represents the research on effect of foliar treatment of plants with different types of multifunctional growth regulators on the formation of photosynthetic activity indicators and productivity of a sugar beet. We found that 10 days after the first foliar treatment with micronutrients, the leaf area increased by 4.57-5.80 ths. m2/ha, compared to 3.72 ths. m2/ha on the control. The same trend in the increase of the leaf area and the formation of photosynthetic potential remained throughout the vegetation season. The highest content of chlorophyll was seen after the reapplication of POLYDON Amino Zinc – it counted 67.01 IU; and the lowest – 61,67 IU on the control. A greatest mass of root crops was obtained on the variant with the treatment by POLYDON Boron – 796 g. It is 57 g more than when using POLYDON Amino Zinc, and 66 g – POLYDON Amino Boron-Molybdenum. The foliar treatment with multifunctional growth regulators resulted in yield increases of 3.1-11.0 %. The highest sugar content was observed with the foliar treatment by POLYDON Amino Boron-Molybdenum – 16.47 %. The most productive variant in terms of white sugar yield is the triple treatment with POLYDON Boron – 11.67 t/ha.
Keywords: sugar beet, fertilizers, micronutrients, leaf area, yield.

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DOI 10.36461/VRF.2022.13.2.018

EFFECT OF A COMPLEX HUMIC PREPARATION ON THE SOWING QUALITIES OF VEGETABLE SEEDS
А.V. Nushtaeva, Candidate of Chemical Sciences, Assistant-Professor;
Y.V. Blinokhvatova, Candidate of Biological Sciences, Assistant-Professor.
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Penza State Agrarian University”, Russia, Penza, tel. 8(8412) 62-83-67, e-mail: Адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. Для просмотра адреса в вашем браузере должен быть включен Javascript.

The article presents the results of studying the effect of the complex preparation Gumi-Omi containing a complex of organic humic substances with mineral macroelements N, P, K and microelements B, Cu on seed germination and biomass quality of radish and lettuce varieties. The research objects were radish varieties Champion, Vsesozonyi and lettuce variety Raznotsvetnoe Kruzhevo, and cress variety Vesennyi. The positive effect of Gumi-Omi preparation was revealed only at low concentrations, % (mass). The germination energy was the same as in the control plant at a concentration of 0.1 % or increased to 100 (control 90) with 0,01-0,7 % (radish Champion), to 90-95 (control 85) with 0.05-0.1 % concentrations (lettuce variety Raznotsvetnoe Kruzhevo). Seed germination reached 100% in the concentration range of 0.01-0.7%. At concentrations above 1.5 %, a decrease in germination was observed. The maximum values of length and weight of roots and shoots corresponded to the concentration range of 0.35-0.7 %; however, the best values of root to sprout ratio were recorded at a concentration of 0.01-0.1 %. When the drug concentration was increased to 1-2 %, a significant reduction in all indicators of seed germination was observed compared with the control. The results indicate the advisability of using the preparation Gumi-Omi rather at later stages of plant development.
Keywords: humic acids, biological farming, macroelements, microelements, vegetable production, agrochemistry

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UDC 632.937.31 + 633.9 + 635.9+71
DOI 10.36461/VRF.2022.13.2.015

INTRODUCTION OF MISCANTHUS GIGANTEUS FOR ORNAMENTAL USE IN THE MIDDLE VOLGA REGION
V.А. Gushchina, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, professor;
N.I. Ostroborodova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, assistant-professor;
А.А. Volodkin, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, assistant-professor;
А.S. Lykova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, assistant-professor
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Penza State Agrarian University», Penza, Russia, tel. (8412) 628-367, e-mail: Адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. Для просмотра адреса в вашем браузере должен быть включен Javascript.

Nowadays, ornamental grasses are an obligatory component of urban green landscapes. Introduced species such as Miscanthus giganteus, a sterile triploid hybrid from the grass family, play a major role. However, under natural conditions, Miscanthus giganteus requires an average annual air temperature of +5°C to +10°C and rainfall of at least 700 mm. Penza region belongs to the zone of unstable moisture. Therefore, there was a need to determine the adaptability of Miscanthus giganteus and justify its use in landscape architecture. The planting was carried out in May 2013 by seedling method and in the open ground by rootstocks in the scheme 100 × 50 cm at the collection site of Penza State Agrarian University on light gray soil. The plants grown from seedlings proved to be stress-tolerant and in mid-July were 95 cm in height and 90 cm - grown in the open ground with a main stem thickness of 13 mm. During the winter months of 2014, both low negative temperatures and positive temperatures with insufficient snow cover were observed. However, Miscanthus overwintered well and there was no soaking or drying out of the plants in spring. The second-third, sixth-seventh years of miscanthus life were characterized by unstable moisture with HTC - 0.60-0.87, sufficient and excessive (1.27...1.60) in 2016, 2017, 2020 and 2021. Spring regrowth in the first years was observed until mid-May, in the last three years at the end of the month. Stem density varied from 74 to 196 pcs/m2, plant height was 2.20...3.85 m with stem diameter of 10...15 mm. While the stems are of different quality, they are highly decorative because of their dark cherry-colored and weeping leaves with white central veins. Therefore, it can be widely used in landscape phytodesign of gardens and parks, for decorating the banks of reservoirs and in landscape flower beds.
Keywords: Miscanthus giganteus, introduction, landscaping, ornamental grasses, stress tolerance, aesthetics.

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Private animal husbandry, feeding, technologies of feed preparation and production of livestock products


DOI 10.36461/VRF.2022.13.2.004

THE USE OF UNCONVENTIONAL PROTEIN FEED FOR FATTENING BROILER DUCKLINGS
D.G. Poghosyan, Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor
Federal State-Funded Educational Institution “Penza State Agrarian University”,
Russia, Penza, tel. (8412)628-151, e-mail: Адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. Для просмотра адреса в вашем браузере должен быть включен Javascript.

The article presents the results of research on the possibility of using unconventional protein feeds, such as canola and camelina meal, in feeding ducklings of the Blagovarsky cross with broiler fattening technology. It was found that the inclusion of 5% of camelina meal in the compound feed instead of sunflower meal does not have a negative effect on the growth rate of young birds, their livability, slaughter yield and feed conversion. It is not considered rational to increase camelina meal, instead of sunflower one, in the content up to 10%, since it is accompanied by a decrease of the European Efficiency Factor by 8.9% due to a decrease in meat productivity and the livability of ducklings by 3.7 and 6.7%. The inclusion of 5% canola meal instead of sunflower led to an increase in the live weight of ducklings in the first and second half of fattening by 2.8 and 3.4% (P < 0.05) in comparison with the control. The inclusion of 10% canola meal contributed to obtaining a higher live weight of young birds at the age of 21 days and at the end of fattening by 3.8 and 4.5% (P < 0.05), compared with the control. Replacing 5 and 10% of sunflower meal with a similar amount of canola meal in duckling feed resulted in an increase of the European Efficiency Factor by 8.3 and 12.8%, which increased the profitability of meat production by 4.9 and 8.0%.
Keywords: fattening, broiler ducklings, compound feed, camelina meal, canola meal, average daily gain, slaughter yield, European Efficiency Factor.

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DOI 10.36461/VRF.2022.13.2.009

DEVELOPMENT OF PROCESS FOR CREATING A NEW IN-DEMAND PRODUCT BASED ON THE EXAMPLE OF YEAST FOR SILAGE
S.N. Bikonya1,2, Postgraduate Student, O.V. Kochetkova1, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor;
G.Yu. Laptev1,2, Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor; E.A. Brazhnik1,2, Postgraduate Student
1Federal State-Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education Volgograd State Agrarian University, Russia, Volgograd, tel.: +7(8442)41-30-94, e-mail: Адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. Для просмотра адреса в вашем браузере должен быть включен Javascript.
2BIOTROF Limited Liability Company,
Russia, St. Petersburg, Pushkin, tel. 8(812)322-85-50, e-mail: Адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. Для просмотра адреса в вашем браузере должен быть включен Javascript.

This article presents an analysis of the business process of developing yeast for silage, taking into account scientific justification, describes the stages of scientific development, responsible operators, required resources, test results of the resulting product, as well as the process of its registration. The process models have been successfully applied in practice and have shown their effectiveness. Research and analysis of the process of a new product development were carried out at the enterprise engaged in the development and production of animal feed additives BIOTROF LLC, St. Petersburg. Scientific and production experience in laying silage from perennial grasses (cereal-bean mixture) with the developed yeast was carried out on the basis of the Agricultural Production Cooperative Kobralovsky, Leningrad region. Graphical models of the process in eEPC notation were created using the ARIS tools, namely the ARIS Express. As a result of the analysis of business process models, the efficiency indicators of the designed process were calculated. For this process, all the resources of the company's scientific and technical base were involved - a molecular genetic laboratory and a production laboratory. The discussed business process model allows you to get a finished product in the shortest possible time, from the moment you realize the need to develop the required product till you obtain all the permits for its sale. Consideration of possible risks allows you to predict the course of events during the design. This model has been successfully applied in the development of a new product - yeast for silage, Biotrof®2+. Conducting scientific and production experiments confirmed the effectiveness of the new preparation. The use of Biotrof®2+ contributed to a faster acidification of the silage mass, prevented the destruction of protein (in the initial mass, the protein content was 14.5%, in the experiment – 13.4%, in the control – 12.5%). When feeding the prepared silage with a new yeast, the dairy productivity of cows increased (milk fat content increased by 2.5%, milk yield – by 8.6%). The dose of application of the preparation was determined – 1 liter per 30 tons of green mass.
Keywords: modeling, business process, design, new product development, yeast for silage, feed nutrition.

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DOI 10.36461/VRF.2022.13.2.019

QUALITY ASSESSMENT AND DEVELOPMENT OF MILK REPLACERS FOR ARTIFICIAL FEEDING OF YOUNG PETS
D.G. Pogosyan, Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor, Head of the Department;
D.S. Chirkova, magister; G.А. Abuzyarova, Lecturer
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University", Russia, Penza, tel. (8412)628-151, e-mail: Адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. Для просмотра адреса в вашем браузере должен быть включен Javascript.

The article provides an overview of the current market for modern dog and cat milk replacers. Data on the composition of natural milk of dogs, cats and milk replacers according to literature data are given. The results of laboratory research on estimation of quality of substitutes of Royal Canin designed for artificial feeding of newborn kittens "Babycat milk" and puppies "Babydog milk" are presented. In the tests carried out, the composition of the milk replacers and regenerated milk for kittens and puppies did not differ significantly. At the same time, the actual fat, mineral and dry matter content of the reconstituted milk corresponded with the composition of natural dog and cat milk. However, the lactose content was 1.5-2 times higher, and the protein content, on the contrary, was 20-45 % lower than the values typical for natural milk. Based on the conducted research a new recipe for a universal dry milk mixture for artificial feeding of puppies and kittens is proposed, which includes in different combinations: whey protein concentrate, casein, dried cream, palm dried fat, vitamin and mineral premixes. The proposed formulation will eliminate the disadvantages of existing imported counterparts through a more adapted composition to natural milk, but this requires additional research on animals.
Keywords: agalactia, reconstituted milk, milk replacer, protein content, milk fat, lactose, acidity.

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DOI 10.36461/VRF.2022.13.2.020

MILK PRODUCTIVITY OF DAUGHTERS OF DIFFERENT SIRES OF THE HOLSTEIN BREED
V.V. Lyashenko, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor;
I.V. Kaeshova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor;
A.V. Gubina, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Associate Professor;
N.Yu. Chupsheva, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Lecturer
Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University",
Russia, Penza, tel (8412) 628-151, e-mail: Адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. Для просмотра адреса в вашем браузере должен быть включен Javascript.

The productive and breeding abilities of animals are largely determined by their origins. Sires, especially those belonging to the leading lines of the Holstein breed, have a great impact on the cow production in dairy cattle breeding. According to the purpose of work, the article present data of a comparative assesment of the Holsteins breed's cow productivity of milk of different sires' daughters of Wis Burke Ideal 1013415 line. The research was conducted under the conditions of intensive technology of a modern dairy complex with a cow population of more than 13 ths. animals, total production of 175 ths. tons and milk yield per cow of 11900 kg of milk. The results of the research prove the valuable breeding abilities of the sires, which are confirmed by the high milk productivity of their daughters. In two completed lactations the milk yield of the daughters (n = 510) of four sires averaged from 8964.1 kg to 10171.5 kg of milk. The mass fraction of fat in milk ranged from 3.59 to 3.84 % and the mass fraction of protein – from 3.12 to 3.18 %. When comparing daughters of different bulls in terms of milk production, there is a reliable difference in individual key indicators for a full lactation and 305 days of lactation. Concerning the lactation period, there are differences in the sires' daughters productivity: all daughters of the Wis Burke Ideal 1013415 bulls are characterized by high productivity qualities. The dairy output level indicates purposeful breeding and selection work with the herd.
Keywords: technology, holstein breed, line, sires, milk productivity, cows, lactation.

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Technologies, machinery and equipment for the agro-industrial complex


DOI 10.36461/VRF.2022.13.2.003

FIELD STUDY OF A SEEDER EQUIPPED WITH ROLLER SEEDING UNITS WITH TRUNCATED RUBBER CONES ON THE VALVES
N.P. Laryushin, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor; D.Yu. Parfenov, PhD student;
A.V. Shukov, Candidate of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor;
R.R. Devlikamov, Candidate of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor.
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University", Russia Penza, tel. (8412) 628 517, e-mail: Адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. Для просмотра адреса в вашем браузере должен быть включен Javascript.

The article describes the design and operation of an experimental grain seeder equipped with roller seeding units with truncated rubber cones on the valves. Moreover, graphical and experimental dependences of the uneven distribution of seeds along the length of the furrow during the sowing of winter wheat Clavdia 2 on the speed of rotation of the roller, the diameter of the upper part of the spike and the angle of inclination of the spikes of the experimental seeding unit with truncated rubber cones on the valve are presented. The work on studying the influence of the seeding unit designs was carried out by comparing the basic seeder SZ-5,4 with an experimental seeder equipped with new roller seeding units with truncated rubber cones on the valves. The results of the research showed that an experimental seeder with roller seeding units with truncated rubber cones on the valves steadily performs the process of sowing seeds of winter wheat Clavdia 2 in compliance with all necessary agrotechnical requirements. With the improvement of sowing quality indicators, there is a decrease in the instability of the overall seeding rate, the uneven distribution of seeds along the length of the furrow, damage to the seed material, which, in turn, leads to an increase in the yield of the cultivated crop.
Keywords: seeding unit, rotational speed, diameter, spikes, angle of inclination, winter wheat seeds, Clavdia 2.

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DOI 10.36461/VRF.2022.13.2.005

THEORETICAL SUBSTANTIATION OF THREE-BLADE ROTARY FEEDER
A.V. Machnev1, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor;
V.A. Machnev2, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor; O.Yu. Machneva2, postgraduate student;
A.V. Bykov1, senior lecturer; V.D. Shilina1, senior lecturer; D.O. Chernyaev1, senior lecturer
1Federal State-Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education “Moscow State University of Food Production”, Russia, Moscow, tel. (937) 43-43-711, e-mail: Адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. Для просмотра адреса в вашем браузере должен быть включен Javascript.
2Federal State-Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education “Penza State Agrarian University”, Russia, Penza

The analysis of resource-saving technologies of cultivation and refinement of agricultural crops confirmed that the use of PSS pneumatic sorting tables allows to somewhat reduce the costs of cleaning and sorting. However, the imperfection of their designs and uneven grain supply reduces the effectiveness of their use. Therefore, the purpose of the research was to improve the quality of post-harvest processing of grain crops, the development of a rotary feeder. To achieve this goal, research methods and techniques have been developed. A pneumatic sorting table equipped with a three-blade rotary feeder with an outer diameter of 80 mm with straight blades located at an angle of 120 degrees has been developed. The process of grain flow motion in the hopper was studied and dependencies were established to determine grain motion in the hopper, the time of grain motion in the area under consideration and the speed of grain motion at the exit from the hopper, which was 1.167 m/s. The equations of motion of the blades for the outer and inner diameter of the rotary feeder are established, according to which the actual coordinates of their motion and displacement of the shaft axis of the rotary feeder from its original position are calculated. Calculations have determined that with an outer diameter of 0.08 m of the rotary feeder, grain velocity of 1.02 m/s, an angular velocity of 2.9 s-1, the displacement of the shaft axis of the rotary feeder from its original position at a 360 degree rotation angle will be 160 mm. This will reduce the unevenness of grain supply, and grain shattering, increase laboratory and field germination, improve the content of the output groups of full-fledged grain and, consequently, improve the quality of post-harvest processing of grain crops by a developed pneumatic sorting table equipped with a three-blade rotary feeder.
Keywords: rotary feeder, equations of blade motion for external and internal diameters, grain, cleaning, sorting, grain motion speed, pneumatic sorting table.

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DOI 10.36461/VRF.2022.13.2.012

THEORY AND PRACTICE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF TWO-DISC DISTRIBUTING DEVICES FOR SEED PREPARATION
O.Yu. Machneva1, postgraduate; K.Z. Kukhmazov1, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor;
A.V. Machnev2, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor;
V.A. Machnev1, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor;
I.A. Uspensky3, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor;
B.N. Fedorenko2, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor;
A.V. Yashin1, Candidate of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor
1Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University", Russia, Penza
2Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Moscow State University of Food Production", Russia, Moscow
3Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Ryazan State Agrotechnological University Named after P.A. Kostychev", Russia, Ryazan, tel. (937) 43-43-711, e-mail: Адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. Для просмотра адреса в вашем браузере должен быть включен Javascript.

One way of preserving grain from harvest to emergence is to prepare the seed for sowing. It is known as seed dressing. Single-disc chamber seed dressers are the most widely used, but at maximum flow rates the quality of the treatment is significantly reduced. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to develop a treatment chamber distributor to improve the quality of seed dressing in cereal crops. To solve this problem, it was necessary to develop a double-disc distributing device which is capable to improve the quality of treatment, to carry out a theoretical justification of its application, as well as to give a preliminary evaluation of the device use under laboratory conditions. For this reason, a double-disc distributing device has been developed. It is capable of redistributing the seed flow between the lower solid disc and the upper annular disc when changing the flow rate. Classical mechanics and mathematics were the basis of theoretical research. As a result, we have determined the forces exerting on the seed, the differential equations of motion of a constrained material particle and the motion of the seed on rotating discs in analytical form of a two-disc distributing device consisting of upper annular and lower solid discs with polymer spreaders, and the critical speed of the drive shaft 13,5 s-1, which determines the moment of the seed sliding on discs. The actual angular velocity (56.5 s-1) was found to be 4.2 times greater than the critical velocity of 13.5 s-1, which is sufficient to produce a uniform flow of seeds with discs directed towards the deflectors. The evaluation of the application of the developed device under laboratory conditions provides a maximum seed supply of 5.84 kg/s, a non-uniformity of 3.1 %, and a seed crushing of 0.04% by the dresser. This has a positive effect on the seed dressing quality.
Keywords: seed treatment, seed preparation machine, seed, two-disc distributing device, differential equations, upper annular disk, angular velocity, lower solid disc.

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 DOI 10.36461/VRF.2022.13.2.006

ACTIVE SIDE DIVIDER OF THE COMBINE HEADER FOR HARVESTING PEAS
K.Z. Kukhmazov, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor;
I.E. Karasev, Candidate of Technical Sciences; B.M. Meloyan, Postgraduate
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Penza State Agrarian University”,
Russia, Penza, e-mail: Адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. Для просмотра адреса в вашем браузере должен быть включен Javascript.

The article concerns the problem of reducing losses during harvesting of tangled and dowm leguminous crops, particularly peas. This scientific research describes the proposed active side divider of the combine header made in the form of a disc cutter, which is mounted on the hydraulic motor shaft, and a counter-cutting plate fixed to the angled surface of the header sidewall. A methodology for determining the losses of the combine harvester header with the proposed active side divider has been developed. Also we have presented the results of laboratory and field studies to justify the design and operating parameters of the active side divider, conducted in accordance with GOST 28301-2015 "Grain harvesters. Test methods" on pea harvesting. After processing the experimental data, we obtained function equations and drew graphs of pea loss value dependencies on design and operating parameters of the active side divider. The findings have shown that the header with the proposed active side divider steadily performs the technological process at a disc cutter rotation frequency of n 120 min-1, a number of disc cutter teeth z – 8 pcs., and an operational speed of the combine v – 7 km/h. In this case, pea losses do not exceed the agronomic permissible losses.
Keywords: harvesting of tangled and dowm leguminous crops, combine harvester, combine header, active side divider, pea losses.

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DOI 10.36461/VRF.2022.13.2.016

COMPARATIVE EFFICIENCY OF THE INNOVATIVE "TUMAN" UNITS (A SPRAYER AND A MULTI-INJECTOR) OF OOO "PEGAS-AGRO" (LLC) WHEN APPLYING LIQUID UREA-AMMONIUM NITRATE FERTILIZERS
V.А. Milyutkin1, Doctor of Techical sciences, professor;
О.N. Kukharev2, Doctor of Techical sciences, professor
1Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Samara State Agrarian University", Russia, Samara region, Kinel, tel. (927) 264-41-88, Адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. Для просмотра адреса в вашем браузере должен быть включен Javascript.
2Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University", Russia, Penza

Due to the increasing demand for liquid fertilizers caused by their better characteristics, especially for arid conditions and in connection with the predicted global warming, agrarian universities of Russia conduct scientific and production researches on the development of innovative technologies with various technical means for effective application of UAN liquid fertilizers when they are filled with natural deficit meso (sulfur-S) and microelements (copper, zinc, boron and others) on major crops (experiments were conducted on winter wheat crops). UAN fertilizer, among other things, has a positive effect for plants due to the prolonging effect of nitrogen in three components - nitrate (8%), ammonium (8%) and amide (16%). Amide nitrogen itself is absorbed by plants through the leaves, which makes it possible to increase the fertilizer efficiency through a complex nutrition of leaves and roots. The design of technical means for UAN application has a decisive influence on their use in different crops and development phases. In connection with these circumstances, the classification of existing technologies and technical means has been carried out with the research of the products of the Samara enterprise "Pegas-Agro" (LLC), which are quite demanded in the agro-industrial complex of Russia. The machinery considered and presented in the article is distinguished by a promising possibility of completing on a single, integrated transport and energy platform with various purpose machines-adapters for agrochemical treatment of crops during the whole cycle of their development. Out of the wide range of special and serial complete agricultural machines (sprayers) for application of liquid fertilizers the research showed the advantageous effect of innovative Russian units - a multi-injector "Tuman-2M" on the yield of winter wheat varieties "Basis" selected by Samara Research Institute, compared with a spraying boom sprayer "Tuman-2" by almost 20% at application rate of UAN+S - 200 l/ha with improvement of grain quality, which increased the efficiency of agricultural production. At the same time the results of experiments confirmed a significant, more effective effect of liquid fertilizer UAN + S (N - 24 %, S - 2 %) on the yield of winter wheat from 20 to 60 % compared to the crops without fertilizers.
Keywords: farming, grain, production, technology, fertiliser, UAN, liquid, application, surface, injectable, multi-injector.

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DOI 10.36461/VRF.2022.13.2.017

QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF THE CRITERIA FOR INSTALLING OF THE VIBRATION SENSOR ON DIAGNOSTIC OBJECTS
I.M. Zyabirov, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Assistant-Professor;
A.I. Zyabirov, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Assistant-Professor
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Penza State Agrarian University", Russia, Penza, tel. (8412) 628-569, Адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. Для просмотра адреса в вашем браузере должен быть включен Javascript.

The paper presents the results of measurements of vibration parameters of the threshing drum mechanism of a combine harvester ACROS under operating conditions. The results of a multifactorial experiment allowed to determine the significance of the influence of radial clearance in the shaft bearing, the size of the drum imbalance, the tension of the variator drive unit and the rotational speed of the mechanism on vibrations with determining the optimal point of installation of a vibration sensor D-14 on the body of the bearing support to register measurement of amplitude-frequency characteristics through the developed prototype of the control and diagnostic device.
Keywords: vibration, threshing drum, diagnosis, parameter, planning, variance, probability, methodology

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